Tolbachik volcano, a midwinter eruption
(Kamchatka, Russia)

During the night of November 27, 2012 an eruption column 10 km high marked the start of the eruption of Tolbachik on Russia’s Kamchatka peninsula. The lava flows that escaped from cracks ran nearly 20 km down the snowy peaks and ashen slopes, while a cone spewed lumps of molten lava 200 m into the sky non-stop. Russian and American volcanologists took advantage of the eruption to study the reactions between lava and snow to better understand and anticipate the catastrophes that occur when ice-covered volcanoes erupt over inhabited areas.

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